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12个月份的英文来历(双语)
Admin 发布于 2018年03月13日 10:34:10

  在以往新概念三册的教学过程中,每每讲到octopus一词时,总不忘提一嘴其词根octo-表示“8”的含义,每次也都有好奇的声音会问:同样是octo-,为什么October就是“十月”,而非“八月”呢。借此机会,给感兴趣的童鞋们科普下1-12月英语单词的来历。

  古罗马原来只有10个月,古罗马皇帝决定增加两个月放在年尾。后来凯撒大帝把这两个月移到年初(也是爱折腾),成为1月和2月,而原来的1月和2月就成了3月和4月。以此类推。这就是今天世界沿用的公历。

  January---一月

  来源于古罗马门神杰纳斯Janus。该神生两张脸,一张回顾过去,一张眺望未来。人们选择他的名字作为除旧迎新的第一个月月名。

  Januarywas named after the goal Janus. Janus was a strange god with two faces thatcould look in two directions. He could look forward and back at the same time, sohe was the god of beginnings and endings. January, the first month of the year,is a time at which one looks forward to the New Year and back to the old year.

  February——二月

  每年2月初,罗马人民都要杀牲饮酒,欢庆Februarius菲勃卢姆节。这一天,人们常用一种名叫Februa的鞭子抽打不育的妇女,以求怀孕生子。这一天人们要忏悔自己过去一年的罪过,洗刷自己的灵魂,求得神明的饶恕,使自己成为一个贞洁的人。

  The nameFebruary comes from a Roman celebration called Februarius and Februa is a kindof whip used on that occasion to 'punish' those females who are supposed to beinfertile. Toward the end of February, after the long winter months, peoplebegin to think of spring cleaning. This probably was the origin of the name ofthe month.

  March——三月

  按照传统习惯,3月是古罗马每年出征远战的季节。为了纪念战神玛尔斯Mars,人们便把这位战神的拉丁名字作为3月的月名。据传玛尔斯是一位强壮的神,罗马人把它与雷鸣电闪联系在一起,因此玛尔斯的像头部总是被画上闪电。

  The thirdmonth, March, was named after the Roman god of war, Mars. Mars was a stronggod, and the Roman people always connected him with thunder and lightning. Picturesof Mars always show him with lightning above his head.

  April——四月

  罗马的4月,正是大地回春,鲜花初绽的美好季节。英文4月April便是由拉丁文aperire(开放,开花)演变而来。

  The exactorigin of the word April is not known. The word probably comes from the Latinword aperire, meaning "to open". In the month of April, the skiesopen and give us rain. The rain aids in the opening of life among trees, grass,and flowers.

  May——五月

  罗马神话中的女神玛雅Maia,专门司管春天和生命。罗马人用她的名字命名5月。

  May wasnamed after the young and beautiful goddess of the fields, Maia. Maia was themother of the god Mercury.

  June——六月

  主神朱庇特Jupiter的妻子朱诺Juno,司婚姻、生育和妇女之神,相当于希腊神话中的赫拉。古罗马人对她十分崇敬,便把6月奉献给她。英语6月June便由这位女神的名字演变而来。

  Anotherbeautiful goddess, Juno, the wife of Jupiter, give us the name of the month ofJune.

  July——七月

  古罗马凯撒大帝CaesarJulius遇刺身亡,元老院用凯撒的名字Julius命名凯撒大帝诞生的7月。英语7月July由拉丁语Julius演变而来。

  Theseventh month of the year, July, was named after Julius Caesar. Caesar was afamous general who became dictator of Rome. He himself was born in July, theseventh month of the new calendar.

  August——八月

  凯撒大帝继任者屋大维为了和凯撒齐名,也想用自己的名字来命名一个月份。他的生日在9月,但他选定8月。因为他登基后,罗马元老院在8月授予他奥古斯都Augustus(至高无上)的尊号。于是,他用这个尊号来命名8月。原来8月只有30天,为了和凯撒平起平坐,他又决定从2月中抽出一天加在8月上。从此,7/8两月都是大月,而2月的日子变少了。英语8月August由这位皇帝的拉丁语尊号Augustus演变而来。

  AfterJulius Caesar, his grandnephew Augustus became the ruler of Rome. Augustus'real name was Octavian, but when he became emperor, the people wished to pleasehim. They gave him the title of Augustus, meaning "noble", and theynamed the eighth month, August, after him.

  九月——十二月

  September、October、November以及December在我们今天的日历里是一年的第九、第十、第十一和第十二个月,但是在凯撒以前的古历法中,它们是一年的第七、第八、第九、和第十个月。它们的名字分别源自拉丁文的Septem“7”,Octo“8”,Novem“9”以及Decem“10”。

  Themonths of September, October, November, and December need little explanation Inour calendar today, they are the ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth months. Butin the old calendar before Julius Caesar, they were the seventh, eighth, ninth,and tenth months. Their names therefore came from the Latin words for seventh, eighth,ninth, and tenth.

  这里还有两个比较有意思的插曲。说是罗马皇帝凯撒和奥古斯都都有了自己名字命名的月份,罗马市民和元老院就要求当时的罗马皇帝梯比里乌斯用其名命名11月,但皇帝没有同意,他明智的对大家说,如果罗马每个皇帝都用自己的名字来命名月份,那么出现了第13个皇帝怎么办?于是,11月仍然保持了旧称。而公元二世纪末罗马皇帝康茂德Commodus想要把一年中最后一个月用他的情妇的名字来命名,但遭到元老院的反对。因此12月也仍旧沿用旧名。